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1. Advantages of Immigration
There are many advantages of immigration in both the host country and the country of origin. For instance, immigration results into movement of workforce into a country and areas of vacancy where skilled labor is required can be filled. This results into increased output of a country and a resulting sustainable economic growth (Srivastava, 2008). In addition, immigration ensures that services to the aging population are maintained when young populations move into a country. It enables filling of the pension gap when young workers participate while they pay taxes.
Furthermore, immigration results into additional energy and innovation. When skilled immigrants move into a country, they take up job positions in areas that require their skills and improve the innovation and productivity of organizations where they work. There is also a rich cultural diversity as a result of immigration. This is contributed by people of various nationalities and races who come into a country, thus, resulting into a country having people of various cultures. The positive attributes of these cultures are used to improve the lifestyles of people in a country, thus, resulting into a transformed culture with better lifestyles.
2. Disadvantages of Immigration
There are also various disadvantages of immigration. These include depression of wages because the more the number of employees, the lower the amount if wages given to them due to the need to cater for the wages of all the employees (Payan, 2006). In addition, there is the possibility of having workers willing to work for low amounts of pay and this will result into less concern for the level of productivity because employees who are willing to work for low pay are less likely to provide quality labor, which results into low output.
Furthermore, the immigrants may be exploited in a number of ways such as in terms of pay, sexual exploitation and subjecting them to difficult tasks that result into impacts on their health and life. The process of immigration also results into high number of population in a particular area, thus, leading to pressure on public services and social amenities. This may result into health issues as a result of outbreak of diseases due to poor sanitation in settlement areas. When there is movement of large number of people, there may be insecurity, thus the need for monitoring activities in residential areas due to high crime rates and lack of tranquility in residential areas.
3. Current Immigration Issues
There is a division in the public discourse over the matter of illegal immigration. According to opponents, undocumented immigration results into economic drain while others claim that it results into economic boon. Another claim that has been made is that immigrants take up jobs that would have been taken by the Americans while other have argued that the work done by immigrants are those that Americans are unwilling to do. Meanwhile, legal immigrants suggest that there is the need to make legal immigration more efficient top prevent illegal immigration and ensure skilled labor is attracted, but the debate over illegal immigration policies implementation has prevented the attainment of further progress (Borjas & National Bureau of Economic Research, 2007).
According to the views of many Americans, there is the need to review the illegal immigration policies. Debates center mainly around the control of immigration into the United States through the Mexico border where it has been suggested that there is the need to increase more US Patrol troops in the border to reduce the number of illegal immigrants.
It has also been observed that immigrant children are less likely to get medical attention compared with the native children in the USA even when they are insured. In a similar manner, adult immigrants do not usually use emergency rooms compared with low income Americans.
4. Immigration Policies that Should be Implemented and their Impacts on the US Economy
Immigration policies that need to be implemented are those policies that determine the maximum number of people that should be allowed to enter into the US each year (Arnold, 2011). This will ensure the US is able to cater for the economic, employment and health needs of immigrants allowed into the country per year.
In addition, there is the need to implement prosecution measures for illegal immigrants into the US. This is where any illegal immigrant found in the country is taken to court and prosecuted and if found guilty, the immigrant is charged based on the laws pertaining to illegal immigration in America. This will ensure illegal immigrants are restricted from entering into the United States and Americans will be able to benefit from economic benefits such as jobs and housing without competition from immigrants.
Another policy that needs to be implemented is the policy where illegals immigrants who are found in the US should be deported back to their native countries. The impact on the US economy as a result of implementation of this policy is that only legal immigrants who are legitimately allowed to live and work in the US will be allowed to remain. This will result into less pressure on job opportunities in the US and it will also ensure companies do not hire illegal immigrants who may not have any skills to improve the competitiveness of the US economy.