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Stem cell research has been of interest to the medical community, other healthcare professions, and the general publics since 1945 (Prockop, 2009). Stem cell-based therapies are a reality today, and recent use of stem cells validates the wisdom of recovering and cryo-preserving stem cells today for autologous transplants later in life. Autologous transplants appear to be the best method of stem cell transfer to use in the emerging fields of regenerative and personalized medicine, due to their antirejection capabilities.

Stem cells are distinguished for their aptitude to self-renew and discriminated into a diversity of cell types. A number of stem cells, explained as totipotent cells, have incredible capability to selfrenew and distinguished (Lok, 2012). Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have pluripotent capacity, able to form tissues of all three germ layers but unable to form an entire live being (2). Cell characteristics in stem cell biology are the as follows: totipotent – able to manufacture a complete being, such as blastomeres; pluripotent – capable to produce each and every one of the tissues and self-renew inde%uFB01nitely, such as ESCs; and multipotent – able to produce many cell types and self-renew over the lifetime of the being and over many subsequent generations if transplanted, such as hematopoietic stem cells; and progenitor – able to produce restricted number of cell types and with limited to no capacity of self-renewal, such as neural stem cells. (Lok, 2012).

Stem cells promise great advances in the treatment of injury and disease, but many problems must be overcome before their clinical potential can be realized. Each kind of stem cell presents unique opportunities and challenges, assets, and liabilities. To determine the medical value of each, we must compare their ever-changing balance sheets. We have avoided most ethical issues and have barely mentioned the stem cell controversy.

To know whether one stem cell can replace another in the clinic, it is necessary to identify similarities and differences from a range of perspectives. These include the source and availability of each kind of stem cell; its proliferative potential; the types of cells it can generate; the diseased and injured tissues it might be used to treat; the optimum scalable methods for its collection, culture, identi%uFB01cation, purification, potency testing, and delivery; and its short- and long-term risks. These are complex issues that will take many years to resolve. (Magnus, 2010)

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