Leadership

In the modern world of market relations, the success of a company depends on effective management. Positive influence and motivation of staff has become an urgent topic among recruiters and company leaders. In challenging conditions of the new global world and international communication, the concept of leadership has developed and transformed. Effective management and leadership are important aspects of any business all over the world.

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There are different approaches in modern understanding of the concept of leadership. It can be defined as a set of personal human traits or a process of ruling and interaction with people (Northouse, 2010). The first vision reveals the existence of personal inborn talents and characteristics or behavioral peculiarities which stipulate the position in the organization hierarchy. The other vision underlines the importance of interaction and effective motivation of the staff for getting the necessary result (Northouse, 2010).

Leadership can be inborn or acquired. Many scientists believe that in the modern conditions of high level competition, leaders skills and behavior can and need to be developed. The success of effective team production and management depends on flexibility and personal readiness to learn from those at the top positions in the organizational hierarchy (Lussier & Achua, 2012).

Nowadays, scientists underline the importance of leadership styles in company management and interpersonal communication of leaders and staff. The styles include verbal and non-verbal messages and motivational impulses to the followers, which help in the effective and productive fulfillment of the tasks. The most common styles are autocratic, or authoritarian, and democratic, or participative (Iqbal 2011).

Some organizations need strong discipline, and others need creativity and initiative for effective development and competition. Leaders have to adapt their personal interaction style to the needs of the company in order to get the required results. The difference in the styles lays in the distribution of the authority (Daft, 2014). Autocratic style concentrates the power and responsibility in the leaders position, while democratic style assigns subordinates with the power and responsibility, and coordinates their interaction.

Modern researches show that democratic style lets followers fulfill the tasks independently and effectively. It decreases hostility and tension, which can arise while applying autocratic style. Moreover, democratic style helps to reveal personal talents of followers and take advantage of them for the creation of the unique workplace environment. Relaxing atmosphere helps to dissolve in the process and produce unexpected and effective decisions. Autocratic style is stressful both for the leaders and the subordinates. It should be noted that the result is the most important index of the effective leadership. Management and tasks fulfillment are much more important than personal traits or style of behavior of a leader. The result reveals the real value and competence of a leader (Hamilton, 2010).

Autocratic style

Dear followers,

Today we start a new project on design, production and supplying furniture for a new baby club. This order is very important for the company, so I will personally check every chain of the production and delivery process.

Designers are to create designs of educational spaces for children of different age categories, from 2 till 5. So, firstly, they should learn physiological standards for every age group. I also strongly recommend studying the color effect of interior on children. I draw your attention to the necessity of effective space usage as the rooms are not large. They need to be functional and rationally organized. The client wants the club to be enjoyable without any dark colors. The designers are to produce their projects by the end of the week and present them in paper and electronic format. I have to remind you that the client will chose only one project. So, try your best and follow the instructions.

While the designers work at the project, the constructors are to prepare the price list of materials for the client to choose from. They are to be ready to answer the clients questions on the stuff of materials, their origin, practical value, and functional longevity. The client wants natural materials, but the price will also affect his choice. Be ready to offer not very expensive, but practical materials.

The accounting department is to prepare the approximate cost of the project in some variants with different materials. I believe the client will appreciate your readiness to offer him some variants of design of different styles.

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We all need to work hard if we want nice results and new clients to come. So, do not waste your time and start working.

1. An email from the headmaster of a school to teachers

Dear colleagues,

Today I have to announce the beginning of a new semester. I wish you patience and effective teaching process as by the end of the year we need to present better results than the term before. As the teaching plans have already been established, the main task today is to discuss and adopt a new extracurricular plan. Every teacher is to take part in the fulfillment of the process by holding a party, a meeting with an interesting person or a thematic drama production. If you have any other ideas, you should discuss them previously with me as we need to focus our extracurricular purposes on educational needs. As a year before, I offer to divide the plan into subject weeks. Every teacher will be responsible for an event on his subject. The plans of the events are to be presented to me personally not later than two weeks before the event. Moreover, teachers will have to present the reflection of the students and the colleagues response to the events. The success will mean additional bonuses to your salary and my personal appreciation.

Democratic style

Dear All,

Today our company enters a new challenging task of doubling the sales of our product. We have achieved great results, but I am sure we can achieve much more. It is such a pleasure to see satisfaction and response on your faces. As you all had the possibility to notice, we are at our hot and need fresh ideas for the further promotion of our product. It is a great opportunity for personal promotion, isnt it? I have some speculations on the topic, but still keep them to myself as I want to hear your ideas if you do not mind and if you have any. As far as I know, the marketing department has developed the strategy of additional advertising. All ideas, even unexpected and crazy, are welcome. Please feel free to share your propositions. In order to discuss them freely and in a relaxed atmosphere, you are to have a free lunch at a nearby cafe today. Do not be late.

Dear All,

Yesterday, our company won a very costly trend, so we face new challenges for proving once again that we are the best. The project is the construction of the new sports center in the nearby area. Our competitors are very angry with us, so we cannot just celebrate. Our task is to investigate the exact demands of the client and to offer him something even better that he wants. We have to surprise our client as we have always done. It is our job to be new, it is our brand to be unexpected and brave in or design decisions. So, everyone is welcome to share the idea for the project. I really believe in our team. You are the best. In order not to waste time, I offer you to make a cup of your morning tea or coffee and start working. Please do not hesitate to consult and discuss your questions with me or with each other. Our quality is the trust of our customers and additional bonuses to our salaries, of course. Do not forget to enjoy yourselves and think of the fit body you will be able to train in the future sports center.

Have a nice day.

In conclusion, it should be noted that both styles have their advantages and disadvantages. Too much democracy at the workplace can make people disorganized and careless. At the same time, constant tension, which is typical for autocratic style, leads to stress and reduction of productivity. An effective leader should combine elements of both styles in accordance with the situation. The most important point to remember is the result which appears out of diffusion in the process. Leadership is estimated in productivity and effective cooperation with followers who hear, understand, and share the leaders demands. These are the touchstones of competence in leadership.

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