1. Explanation of the Systems Approach and Goal Approach

A system implies a band of parts synchronized to realize a set goal. This could be rearticulated as a structure that contains organized components. A system refers to a collection of procedures and activities working together to achieve some common objectives. It could also be described as organized, integrated set of components that work in alliance to realize a common goal. Churchman develops a mathematical model as section of a system approach to managerial frameworks planning for example linier modeling plus probability statistics. However, he affirms on value oriented theories to systems planning. Thus, he establishes four core types: distinct persuaders, functionalist, communicators, and mutual under stander. This article focuses on the description of both system and goal approach and their application in a business situation (Case Western Reserve University, 2007).

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The Churchman system approach was designed to promote the existing system. This system deploys the minimum system, which is an outline consisting of five fundamental considerations regarding the meaning of a system. He acknowledges that system requires inputs or resources to be able to produce outputs. This could include raw materials, economic material and data. It also focuses on the system environment and the fixed constraints that are present in the surrounding. In addition, it states that a system is made of various components. Systems must have some management elements that are responsible for ensuring integration of the framework. The system works to realize the overall objective of the entire institution. This systems aim is to serve a particular number of clients. The sole reason for creating a system model is to exemplify the real system in a manner that includes the improvements (Case Western Reserve University, 2007).

The Goal approach perceives effectiveness in regards to internal institutional aims and performance. Organization environment is the main area of attention to a system resource approach, although this method has been reserved to profit making firms. Goal approach pointers are complemented with system resources measures in evaluating the consistency and convergence of the two approaches. Convergence of effectiveness is determined through observing the relation between the approaches plus four institutional decision making variables, which had initially been indicated as the attributes of effectiveness (Case Western Reserve University, 2007).

In determining the ratio, to which an institution is realizing its purposes or goals, is a foremost question of concern in the study of complex firms. The Goal approach describes effectiveness as goal realization or ratio, to which an institution is meeting its in-house determined objectives. The system resource approach treats institutions as the sections of analysis. The area of concern is the nature of contact between the institution and its surroundings. However, these two approaches are considering mainly the firms operations, instead of its social functions plus have established being fairly independent. Again, each is linked with a band of characteristic assumptions, as well as measurement techniques (Case Western Reserve University, 2007).

The Goal is concerned with new worldwide principles of manufacturing. This relates to human beings making effort to comprehend what is making the world tick so they can improve it. Through thoughtful insights they are able to determine the cause and effect relationship between their achievements and actions. As a result, they formulate some fundamental principles that they deploy to salvage their world and make it successful. The relying on this principle at first will lead to it becoming more understood and exhibit how it could restore order during chaos periods in firms. In addition, it yields the power of comprehension of the value and benefits. The results analyzed are based on those truly realized in the plants (Goldratt & Cox, 2004).

Therefore, by mere managing to comprehend and deploy these principles the organization can compete with anyone. Lastly, the approach provides the understanding that human being possesses all that requirements, which are in the mind. The significant ingredient is to have courage to confront inconsistencies between what one sees and the manner through which things are executed (Case Western Reserve University, 2007).

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The Systems approach looks at the organization as a whole and not broken down into divisions. At any time the organization is believe to be working when intact without breaking down to smaller component in order to achieve effectiveness. On the same note the sub units of the system are interrelated and interdependent. This implies that the sub units depend on each other and interact between them (Case Western Reserve University, 2007).

The Goal, on the other hand, depicts that Unicos deploys great level of automation at several levels in order to promote production efficiency. The independence accorded to the sub units is contrary to the interdependence that is shown in the Systems approach. Under Systems approach all the units work together in harmony for the realization of the common goal. Each unit works as separate entity to pursue its own goal other than the overall goal of the organization. The institution focuses on how the sub unit works to contribute to the overall goal. In Goal approach this is not the case, as far as the various levels acquire autonomy. This implies that each of the level makes its own decision. Therefore, it is not easy to have a harmonized goal since each level will set their specific goal in the most efficient way for them (Goldratt & Cox, 2004).

The similarity of the Goal and Systems approach is that they both are working toward enhancing performance. The Systems approach dictates that various sub units work together as integrated components to realize the organizational goal with efficiency and effectiveness. At the same time, the Goal works toward realization of efficiency. This system further states that the involvement will include pointing out the limiting factor in the firm. This refers to the things, which inhibits the volume of output for the company. Exploiting repeating, elevating, and subordinating is aimed at minimizing the constraints of a firm (Goldratt & Cox, 2004)

2. Everest Expedition

The major principle of the Goal approach is the theory of constraints, which continues the improvement process. Alexs team reveals the basic principles of theory of constraints when they manage to change a crisis situation into unanticipated success. In relation to the Everest situation, the actions of interrelated events prove to be the subsystems. The author notes that when they resume work, he noticed that the line extended from his front to a far place. He realizes that the boys have rearranged themselves on a hierarchy of fastest to slowest. Therefore, there is no holding back anymore, although the line is haste spreading. This is an element of a subsystem where individual subsystems pursue their own objectives, which is different from the main organizational goal. On the same situation, the fact that each level works differently and independently is also a characteristic linked with subsystem phenomenon, where they exhibit decoupling. This phrase implies that there is a decreasing level of interdependency between the subsystems and the systems. On the same note, the summing up of overall situation represents another trait of subsystem known as synergy. Synergy refers to a situation where all the sub units are summed together. This results into greater effects compared to when one is working alone or as a separate unit (Goldratt & Cox, 2004).

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