Over the years, varying debates have taken place over the evolution of eating lifestyles among men. Modern day anthropology has undertaken proper research to establish this link. The middle Stone Age marked a greater stage in the evolution of man. The Neanderthal is a perfect example of the change. Evidence proves that those ancient people have been mainly herbivores. However, some digging sites have remains suggesting the consumption of small mammals, fish and birds. However, the food diet mainly consisted of herbivorous mammals.

The papers objective is to critically analyze the article and chapter 12 of the book from page 231. In both sources, findings in light of the current dietary research and knowledge mainly state that Neanderthals suffered from a protein crisis (Stanford & Anton, 2010). Protein poisoning problem would have occurred and been disastrous to their survival. This may have been mostly due to the unavailability of resources and proper utilization of natural resources. There is a detailed documented report showing broad consumption of both game food and a variety of plants in France. They mainly dominated by interglacial contexts at a site in Payre (Speth, 2010).

The abovementioned facts may suggest a possible scavenge of large mammals; the late discovery of fire prompted consumption of food among Neanderthals, which is evidenced by burned bones and a heap of ashes just adjacent to the caves. On page 321, the author suggests there was a link between early man, the Neanderthal of the gothic period and cannibalism. The article further upholds this idea through revisits to previous research conducted on the same. Archeological evidence points to apprehend this fact (Hardy, 2011).

Anthropologically, several sites have helped define the lifestyles and civilization progression of early humans. According to the article, crude weapons and tools are evidence of animal butchery and hunting. There is also increased use of unmodified flakes that largely point out to animal butchery. The above fact mainly indicates that the activities were largely related; the use of skin for beddings and clothing helped reinforce this factor. Paints and other artifacts suggest game hunting and use of traps for the same. The Stone Age period has played a big role in anthropologically shaping modern human diets. Even the tools used have been advanced or modified during that time. The middle Paleolithic sites offer a great deal in the making of modern tools and equipments. The tools appear to have been developed as a result of utilitarian and opportunistic factors which helped shape the modern anthropology. Modified and unmodified edges were used for substance activities and for self-defense (Hardy, 2011).

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The author further points out that the economic and cultural activities were common at all levels. Wood work was a rampant activity in the Stone Age period. The late Paleolithic period was marked with the discovery of iron and steel; however, woodwork was still dominant in the making of shelters and crude weapons (Stanford & Anton, 2010). The economic activity was largely subsistence and the craft of man was still developing. This has greatly influenced modern wood industry. The morphology of stone tools was still rampant and used in Payre, France. In conclusion, the two sources have offered a deep insight that is both comprehensive and analytical about Neanderthals and the Stone Age period (Stanford & Anton, 2010). The two have strived to redefine the origin of modern dietary patterns and the tools used for their preparation. It is the general anthropological journey of man to his current civilization as accredited by the two sources.

It is clearly evidenced that the journey of man along nutrition alleys is among the first anthropological journey. The transition from early herbivorous diet to use of meat was a big achievement. This was the first step towards modern civilization evidenced by the use of tools. Hunting also marked a great milestone in the evolutionary journey of man as the author proposes. The article further points out to the transitional link to improved dietary patterns in the history of man. The discovery of fire was a great milestone in this transition (Hardy, 2011).

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