The Bauhaus is regarded as the most prominent art school of the twentieth century. Its way of architectural teaching, the comprehension of the link of art to the society, and the modern technology has a crucial importance to the nations across western Europe. The art school was developed by the twentieth century progression, including the art and crafts dynamism. Furthermore, art and crafts dynamism needed to match the distinction between outstanding and applied arts. It was formed taking into account that the art and crafts movement would be in a position of re-uniting artistry and the manufacturing industry. Moreover, it was highly attributed in the era of romantic medievalism of the initial years at art school. During these medieval times, the art institution appeared as an antique crafts’ association. Nevertheless, in the mid-1920s, there was the re-unification of art and the industrial architecture. The current paper will elaborate on the art institution the Bauhaus that was essentially designed by architect Gropius. It will also cover the fundamental post war architects, including Louis Khan, Eero Saarinen, and the famous Finish Hugo Aalto. In addition, the document will target architects that were important during the times of structuralism and postmodernism, such as the famous Finish artist Robert Venturick. It will explore their architectural lives and their great works being critical to the modern century.
The History of the Bauhaus
The Bauhaus was an art school that was operating in the medieval times. It was an art institution located in Germany that joined crafts and masterly arts. The institution was preeminent for its architectural design creating awareness to the public and teaching its architectural students. The art facility had been managed from the early 1919 to the mid of 1933. Interestingly, during that time, the name Bauhaus referred to building the development in the English translation. It was a learning institution whose primary role was architectural design and development at the time.
The Bauhaus institution had been established by the architect Gropius in Germany in Weimar. Gropius was raised from a middle class family’s background and was a citizen of Berlin the modern capital city of Germany. His uncle was an industrious architect Martin Gropius. He was an industrious architect scholar of the famous artist Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Additionally, he graduated with a degree in architecture after successfully studying in both Berlin and Munich for four consecutive semesters.
Significant Works of Walter Gropius
He largely contributed to the design and establishment of the Fagus Factory constructed in Alfred. It was developed with the assistance of architect Behrens and in collaboration with the renowned architect Adolf Meyer. The beauty of design is that it had an existing site arrangement such as a construction plan and the ground design of the architect Werner. Walter Gropius was able to accomplish the things that were considered impossible during their time. Fagus Factory architecture constitutes on the hard brick columns and a floor that was constructed using concrete slabs. It had the extensive steel beams and the magnificent stairways that were common in the contemporary architecture. The massive walls incorporated glass screens to allow sufficient light to gain an access to a building. Moreover, it had excellent curtains that covered against harmful weather conditions.
Walter Gropius contributed to the design and establishment of the Bauhaus archive for storing architectural items. It is a museum of architecture that stores significant art pieces, architectural reading material, and literature that correlate to the Bauhaus institution. The Archive was founded in Darmstadt in the beginning of 1960. Gropius was invited to develop the building in 1964. He completed the building in 1979. It incorporated the use of materials such as the steel, concrete wall, and hard glass as a functional design.
Designing the Gropius House is another decisive work of an architect. It was a residential place of his family members. It was erected in 1937 when he was a tutor at the Harvard University Graduate School of Construction. Its architectural design incorporated the early materials of New England’s structure. The structure comprises materials such as fieldstone, wood, and chrome banisters.
Post War Architect Michael Mies
Michael Mies was a German born architect who contributed widely to the contemporary architecture. At the times of the World War, Michael Mies operated as a recruited citizen. He was enlisted to construct bridges and extensive tarmac roads in the Balkans. At the end of the 1st World War, he opted to abandon the Balkans and went to Berlin after the fall of Germany’s sovereignty. However, it facilitated the establishment of the democratic Weimar self-government. The reason is that it created an opportunity for new creativity in the architecture field, precisely the modernist architects.Significant Works of Michael Mies. His crucial work is the design of the Freidrichstrasse Office Building at the end of the 1st World War. The design for an architectural project proposal constituted a building that had steel and glasses on the wall. Furthermore, this architecture was relying on Miesian notion of skin and bones establishment. The building was to incorporate both the concrete and brick development for the structure’s stability.
Architectural designing of the German Pavilion is a part of his famous works. It was legitimized by the German government in the international analysis of 1929 in Barcelona. The building was destroyed in 1930 and re-established at the end of 1986. It had excellent spaces of 53.6 to 18 meter travertine floors that were partially under a narrow roof and partially outside. Additionally, massive steel columns were supporting the building. The walls defined the excellent spaces of the building and incorporated brown onyx, Tinian marble that is green, and frosted glass. Furthermore, it had a pool with a nude sculptor on its side and few chairs that he had constructed for the pavilion.
Designing the School of Architecture at the Chicago Armour institute is his other important work. He served as a director of the institution when he had moved from Berlin to the United States. He upgraded the learning institution in 1939; and the improvement was completed in 1941. The campus buildings had an excellent cubic dimension that could be adapted to the expensive requirements of the institution. It had a magnificent architectural steel and abundant space of glass reflecting the floor of the higher learning institution. It incorporated simple materials such as the bricks being yellow-brown for a beauty purpose.
Post War Architect Alvar Aalto
Alvar Aalto is one of inventors of Artek; and he is from Finland. He is acknowledged as one of the greatest identities of the modern architecture. He had learned architecture at the University of Technology in Helsinki from 1916 to the mid of 1921. On completion of his studies, he went to Jyvaskyla and started his first architectural business office in 1923. Additionally, the architect Marsio became his wife in the following year.
Significant Works of Alvar Aalto. He had designed the Palladian Inspired Workers Club between 1924 and the end of 1925. He is also recognized for his essential work of the austere quality of the Railway Labourers Housing. It was his immediate task that took place in 1923, which incorporated infrequent decorations and a careful use of ancient elements. Furthermore, he is well known in the south-western Agricultural Cooperative Construction. There, he won the architect’s competition. Due to this, he was awarded for his efforts in the enlightened architecture at the time. He had designed the Turu Sanamat Newspaper construction between 1928 and 1930 that became his principal work in Finland to consolidate Le Corbusier’s architecture.
Post War Architect Louis Khan
Louis Khan is regarded as a leading architect of the twentieth century. His works are crucial to the modern architecture since they show the integration of architectural structures, admiration for classical materials, and perspective of light in majority of his designs. Furthermore, he had adoration to the archetypical geometry that is fundamental in the modern architecture. Louis had a philosophical concern towards classical principles. He attained a bachelor’s degree from the University of Pennsylvania, the school of accomplished Arts in 1924.
Important Works of Louis Khan. He is recognized for his New Haven Connecticut that revealed his personal interests in the experimental architectural structure. He stressed that the floor slabs of concrete were stimulated by excellent spaces. He described the spaces as a tetrahedral space framework. Additionally, the texture of concrete was apparently raw. It emphasizes his perception towards a method of construction. He contended that the method of building should not be hidden. Besides, pyramidal space in the ceiling lighting and the mechanical structures needed to be exposed.
Designing the Richards Medical Research Construction at the University of Pennsylvania between 1957 and 1965 is his other important work. He also constructed the architectural plan of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in California. The work was initiated in 1959 and completed in 1965.
Post War Architect Elliel Saarinen
Elliel Saarinen studied at the Department of Architecture at the Technical Institute located in Helsinki. His mind was captured by drawing courses during his time at the higher learning institution. While studying, Saarinen formed friendship with Gesellius and Lindgren; and they later established an architectural alliance. They created an office to carry out their architectural activities. The studio had operated until 1905 when one of their partners graduated from the institute. Interestingly, Saarinen married Gesellius’ sister; and they were blessed with two children, a son and a daughter.
Significant Works of Elliel Saarinen. He issued the actual architectural design of the Pohjola Insurance Industry in Helsinki. It was his first architecture work that made him recognized due to his intellectual ideas. The task was started in 1899 and completed in 1901. Another essential work was the Finnish Pavilion designed for the Parish Exhibition of the early nineteenth century. The exhibition increased their international recognition and the overall reputation.
Elliel Saarinen is widely known for his works at the National Museum in Helsinki that was completed in 1911. His works were symbolized by an attractive architectural plan composition, a random building combination of the use of materials such as slab, and the infusion of patterns as well as mosaic images from the Finnish architectural design.
Structuralism and Postmodernism: Robert Venturi
Robert is a founder of structuralism and the postmodern architecture. His essential architecture is demonstrated by a decisive and thoughtful pursuit to reconcile the architectural work to its environment and overall function. Robert was born in Philadelphia in 1925; and he is premeditated to be a forerunner of the postmodern architect still working. He enrolled in the University of Princeton in the beginning of 1940 and graduated in 1950. He got his architectural experiences from Saarinen, who established the Elite Gateway Arch in Saint Louis.
Decisive Works of Robert Venturi. He is remembered for his theoretical works in the area of architecture such as Complexity and Contradictions in the Discipline of Architecture in 1966. The book assesses the use of symbolism as a fundamental basis for creating awareness of symbolism being a crucial factor of architecture. Moreover, Learning from Las Vegas is another recommended work of Robert that sheds the light of architectural elements to the field.
Designing Vanna Venturi’s house is another example of his decisive work. The residential building was designed for Robert’s mother in Philadelphia. House engineers consider the building as a piece of art that incorporates masterpieces. The Sainsbury Wing of the National Gallery is another imperative example of his work.
To conclude, Alvar Aalto, Louis Khan, Eero Saarinen, Walter Gropius, and Robert Venturick have contributed significantly to the field of architecture. Walter Gropius is known designing Fagus Factory that had a good site arrangement and construction plan. He has also contributed to the establishment of the Bauhaus Archive for storing architectural items. Michael Mies is famous for designing Freidrichstrasse Office Building at the end of the 1st World War. Alvar Aalto is famous for his post war architecture Palladian Inspired Workers Club. Robert is a founder of structuralism and the postmodern architecture. He is famous for designing Vanna Venturi’s house.