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Human Resource Management
Currently, in the emerging information society, management science becomes more and more important. Ability to manage is one of the most sought-after skills today. Management, in turn, has different subsystems, one of which is the human resource management.
Human resource management is the technology and methodology guidance of workers, which is aimed at achieving goals and objectives of the organisation through the analysis and use of the talent of employees, regardless of their experience and satisfaction with their work. Under current conditions, each organisation should relate to the staff as the most significant entity and essential wealth since the staff affects how quickly and successfully goals and objectives can be implemented (Rothwell, 2012). In contrast to the relationships that were established between the employee and employer at the end of the twentieth century and based on strict regulation, today their cooperation ties by mutually beneficial relationship. This interaction is characterised by a focus on the achievement of customer satisfaction, staff involvement in activities related to the objectives, delegation of duties and responsibilities. Proper management implies respect for the staff and its focus on the realisation of the potential of each worker and the collective in the aggregate.
Specificity of the IT-industry is that actually the professionals are the main means of production. In such circumstances, the question of qualification and availability of specialists is critical for the business. After all, 60-80% of the cost of a typical IT-company is compensation for employees performance. Nowadays, the big problem of IT-market is its imbalance. On one hand, there is witnessing growing shortage of professionals and stable increase of wages, on the other hand, an excess of specialists with insufficient qualifications. As a result, there is a greatly increased competition for skilled human resources. Heads of IT-companies are notably forced to think about that qualified employees are not just a necessity but a significant source of competitive advantage. It is necessary to stress on the fact that the company will perform with people which are the representatives of the generation Y. The latter is enough specific and needs the particular methods usage to be effectively and efficiently managed.
The question of qualification and availability of experts is a critical issue, which is crucial for the business. IT company has a very balanced approach to the issue of managing such a critical resource for themselves and, consequently, integrating it into key business processes, leaving thus, perhaps, the standard framework of human resource management. This is where there is the concept of resource management as a special business process, which is outside of the standard HR. The human resource management of such international e-commerce company should be closely integrated with other business processes. Therefore, in such terms, the HR manager ought to use the complex approach to the management of such human resources of the firm.
One of distinguishing features of international companies is to ensure staff mobility. However, now the question becomes important for local business to provide rotation between different areas in large holdings. The range of issues related to mobility, includes:
adaptation to the new environment and cultural integration of employees/teams;
pool management expats (Mondy, Noe, & Gowan, 2005).
Features of the HR-processes depend on the approach to the management staff. Traditionally, the main task of the internal recruiter is finding the right person at the right time for a specific position. In the international companies, management has to take into account another important factor the cost of the involved specialist (compensation package, relocation, adaptation, etc.). Of course, a lot depends on the situation on the labour market of the country. In the selection of personnel, the company carefully considers each candidate. The enterprise needs only the best people. Thus, the organisation applies the new approaches to the hiring process in order to meet the needs of employees that are particularly necessary in this or another situation that the company is going through.
The method of control framework is aimed to create opportunities to enhance the independence of staff and manifestations of ones initiatives to increase the sense of responsibility, improving communication systems. Characteristics of participatory governance are the ability of employees personally address the issues of planning their work schedule, rhythm, methods of decision-making, the right to control the quality of services and products, but along with that responsibility for the results of decisions. Moreover, staff can take an active and direct participation in activities, such as entrepreneurship and innovation, and receive various awards for it.
In terms of management by objectives, it can be said that this is a philosophy of management, which is based on the common desire to achieve the goals of the organisation, responsibilities and roles. In this purpose, it should comply with Self Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Technology (SMART-criteria), i.e. certainly it is to be specific, measurable, achievable, and certain comparable over time (Tulgan, 2009). This is the effective method of the employees control and performance encouragement that will give personnel enough freedom to perform the work in the way which will bring the highest results.
In the face of ever-increasing competition for talent, it is necessary to establish staffing reserves of mobile staff: managers and specialists, with knowledge/skills that are needed to address the operational and tactical business objectives in the regions of operation. Thus, the given company will use two different approaches to training and development of employees.
The first one relates to the centralised approach. Typical programs are developed by the parent company in accordance with corporate standards; internal coaches implement them in all regions of operation. This strategy is often used as part of a paternalistic approach to personnel management.
The second is decentralised one. The required programs are developed on the ground; the lack of understanding of cultural differences provides coaches and students, as well as records of local features (issues, challenges, strengths, etc.). This strategy is implemented through an independent approach to management (Sauser, 2012). Creation of the mobile reserve personnel reduces the risks associated with local labour markets. These leaders can quickly be involved in any international project: to implement the planned framework to build business processes, implement corporate standards (the local context), etc.
Motivational management is the analysis and consideration of the interests, needs and objectives of each employee to build an effective and efficient system of motivation. HR manager of the particular company, who wants to increase the motivation of the workforce, with the usage of the expectation theory, will raise motivation level of ones employees. Since different people have different needs, every reward they value differently. Therefore, manager should compare the proposed remuneration to the needs of employees and bring them into compliance. In order to effectively motivate the personnel, the manager ought to establish a solid relationship between results and rewards. In this regard, consideration is to be given only for efficient operation. Manager needs to create a high but realistic level of performance expected of subordinates and convince them that they can achieve these results if they work hard. It is also necessary to remember that employees are able to acquire the level of performance required to obtain valuable rewards when the level of authority delegated to them and their skills are adequate for the task. With such application of the expectation theory, it will be possible to achieve the high-level performance from the employees, which would be highly motivated by the particular approach.