Minorities and Discrimination


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The following proposal centers on studying the minorities and the difficulties that they face. Ethnic or race minorities face a number of challenges. Although, there is no clarity concerning the reasons why the minorities encounter various challenges, it is common that they face discrimination. Thus, the proposed study intends to find out whether ethnic or race minorities face problems in accessing social, economic or political opportunities.


Minorities across the world face several challenges. Race and ethnicity are the aspects that have been used to perpetuate suffering of ethnic or race minorities (Aguirre, 2003). Race and ethnicity reflect diversity. Thus, the two aspects should ideally herald prosperity. However, race and ethnicity have been used negatively. According to McLeod (1997), discrimination, prejudice, condemnation etc have influenced the relations among different races and ethnicities and have been spread even to institutions (Amy Stuart Wells, et al, 2004). In this paper, an attempt to portray how ethnicity and race have been used to promote negativity across the world is made.

Research Problem

All over the world, people from minority groups have faced several problems. However, several efforts have been made to resolve the problems that ethnic or race minorities encounter. Ethnic or race minorities have thus had to encounter various concerns which have bordered on economic, social and political issues (Ransford, 1994). Nevertheless, research, as it is depicted in the literature review, shows that ethnic or race minorities encounter difficulties while going about their daily activities. Consequently, it is necessary to conduct a study to ascertain whether ethnic or race minorities continue to face the same concerns.

Research Question

From the preceding subtitles, it is evident that the study is examining the question of ethnic or race minorities and the problems that they encounter. Thus, the research question is whether the ethnic minorities are subjected to various difficulties?

Literature Review

Racism and ethnicity has also been used to deny people equity in access to critical services. More specifically, aborigines are sidelined. Keen observers note that health status has been affected by the living conditions of an individual (Ringer, 1983). In countries, such as Australia, the living conditions have varied since historical times. In America, living conditions vary across the regions ((Martire, & Ruth, 1982). To begin with, an income is a key determinant of the social life. In effect, income affects the type of education an individual accords his/her family, the consumed diet, the job that is held and the working conditions. Equally noticeable, income influences the food security that individuals enjoy.

Social exclusion is a function of varied levels of income (Arnold & Silverstein, 1985). The individuals who earn more often tend to class themselves. Thus, people with low income are more likely to suffer from social exclusion. Apart from exclusion, poor people lack job security. This may necessitate the establishment of a safety net to protect low-level income earners.

Economic difficulties herald prematurity in life. Struggling families are unable to allow children, adolescents and young adults to experience proper growth and development. At these stages of development, especially the first two, mortality levels and social disorder respectively undermine advancement (Levin, & Levin,1982). Based on these problems, the victims succumb to premature deaths.

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The magnitude of risk factors, including high levels of cholesterol, inactivity, poor diet, etc is critical in accounting for the surfacing of chronic diseases. Living conditions due to income differencies play the pivotal role in the emergence of these ills (U.S. bureau of the census, 2002). Principally, deprivation conditions allow those experienced to suffer from high levels of stress, an aspect that compounds the healthcare problem. Moreover, the victims adopt unacceptable patters of behavior in responce to the prevailing circumstances. The adoption of such behaviors as the consumption of illicit drugs does not portend well for the health of the victims.

It is significant to note that people who are living in poor conditions are at a higher risk of experiencing high incidences of illnesses, domestic violence, accidental injuries, poor school scores, child abuse, etc. Such implies that marginalized people encounter added problems when growing (Yun & Kurlaender, 2004). Even if these concerns are likely to affect each family, regardless of the wellness, poor families are at a higher risk.

The differences in access to healthcare facilities are attributed to various factors. However, social determinants such as education, power, occupation, ethnicity, location, income, gender, etc play a leading role in the emergence and the perpetuation of the inequities in Australia. Allegedly, the indigenous people in Australia are the ones that suffer most from the health inequities. On approximation, this community has a reduced life span of between seventeen to nineteen years in comparison to the broader community. Moreover, the indigenous populations have higher death rates and bigger risks to be affected by various illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases, injuries, diabetes and others.

Research method

In the proposed research, I intend to employ a longitudinal survey to examine the problems that minorities encounter in accessing economic, social and political opportunities. The proposed time span is six months. The data sources for research are secondary data on government and private extension of opportunities to the public. I am targeting to collect data from ten provinces in Australia. The provinces are expected to give a valuable pool of respondents for the proposed study.

Using primary data from various respondents who are believed to be victims would equally play a significant role in the study. In collecting the data, a structured questionnaire is to be used. The questionnaires will be delivered directly to the respondents by research enumerators. The questionnaires will cover two aspects on the study subject; the attitude and the demographic parts. Under the latter, such details as sex, age, marital status, literacy level, etc are covered. In the other parts, questions on discrimination, based on race or ethnic minority, would be posed.

Results and Discussion

The results of the data will be presented with the usage of descriptive statistics. Tables, pie charts, graphs and percentages will be used to show the results. The results of the data will be analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics. The choice of statistics is based on the ease of displaying research findings. An analytical approach will be the dominant one in discussing the results.

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