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Expectancy Theory

Home Free essays Business Expectancy Theory

LET Task, Business and Economics

Employees motivation is an important aspect in any business facet. It is an important tool that business uses in the improvement of the output per individual employee. As a matter of fact, less motivated employees results is a less than proportionate output. Furthermore, unmotivated employees further leads to low capacity of production as well as decreasing output generation. It is with this in mind that the expectancy theory pins up the importance and the various aspects that determines the effectiveness and success of a business. Motivation is basically a course that governs the decision making with respect to alternative forms of charitable activities, which is controlled by the proprietor or the business management team (van Kooten et al., 1991).

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According to the expectancy theory, the behavior of an employee depends on the level of motivation exercised on them, which also determines their choice of certain behavior while foregoing others with a focus to the end results of the behavior they identify with. Indeed, the theory defines the inclination of the behavioral selection to the desired outcomes. However, the theory further grounds itself on the cognitive process through which individual processes act as a divergent motivational elements and, therefore, done prior to decision making. In fact, the expectancy theory emphatically expresses the significance of directly relating the reward to the individual performance of the employee besides providing the most warranted reward for the individual employees (van Kooten et al., 1991).

Expectancy theory comprises of three distinct elements namely: Expectancy, which comprises of efforts in relation to the performance; Instrumentality, which indicate the performance related to the decision and the outcomes thereafter, and the component of Valence. These components are quite essential in making sound decisions with respect to the behavior to identify with a view to improving individual or group performance. The element of expectancy basically refers to the sound belief that effort one puts in a given enterprise would result to the achievement of the desired performance objective. This is often based on the past experiences of individual or enterprise, while considering the specific and general constraints in achieving the performance objective using self-efficacy. The expectancy appears in both individual and organizations perspective. On the part of individual, expectancy exists in form of self-efficacy, control as well as the difficulty of the endpoint objective. With respect to self-efficacy, the individual accepts and believes that they can adequately and successfully achieve the desired objective. Consequently, this theory proposes that for individual to boost their expectancy, they must believe in possessing some aspects of control on the desired outcome (van Kooten et al., 1991).

On the other hand, expectancy theory also proposes the element of instrumentality. Basically, this refers to the belief that an individual has, that they will be rewarded upon the achievement of the set standard or objectives. This, therefore, relates the performance to the outcome. Consequently, this means that when an organization fail to set rewards for distinguished performance, the level of instrumentality recedes while the entire populace of performance is declined. Other factor that limits the instrumentality of individuals includes trusts, policy and control. If an employ develop trust on their employees, they are likely to produce a higher level of output due to high level of certainty for performance rewards (Green, 1992).

Furthermore, if the individuals get to understand that they have some discretion to dictate their levels time, manner and reasons for giving rewards, this may boost their instrumentality and the output as a result. Formally written policies also affect the individual instrumentality particularly if they define the relationship between performance and the respective rewards. Finally, in this context, expectancy theory also comprises of the valance. Basically, the valence refers to the significance or the value that an individual attaches to the rewards and, therefore, works in pursuit of the reward. If an individual attach high value on the reward, they are likely to beef up their output and vice versa. This is governed by such factors as values, objectives and preference (van Kooten et al., 1991).

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With respect to the given organization, the introduction of the new brand led to the unfolding of negative implications on the resultant output due to low motivation of the employees. In essence, all the supervisors and employees are less motivated. Consequently, very few if any put any effort in mastering the new production process. In order to resolve this low initiative of employees through the expectancy element, the supervisors ought to improve their perception by analyzing and exposing to the employees the success of the previous branding process as unfolding by the same group employees. Based on the past experience that had resulted to the unwavering success of the brands, the supervisor A will be able to manipulate the employees vigor bearing in mind that the inception of the previous brand was once in its tender application, but after some period of devotion, it became one of the leading production mechanism for the new process. Furthermore, this will also develop a conviction on the employees for the success of the new process based on their past experience of excellent production process as unveiled through the expectancy element of expectancy theory. This will, therefore, boost the employees vigor to understand the new process with a view to achieving excellent brand production from the past experience.

In order to boost their beliefs in capability of achievement as they claim of inability to make the new process work, the supervisor A should inspire self-efficacy of the expectancy element in boosting the employees believes in accomplishing the task amidst the series of constraints. Furthermore, the supervisor also has to make an established reward system for the individual striking performances, based on instrumentality element. This will ensure that employees will strive to achieve the desired objective of the organization with a view to clinching the reward. Furthermore, this will enable them toil to understand the process in order to spur a positive and magnificent performance worth the best reward. Additionally, the recognition of singular distinguished efforts will also help the employees identify with the product and aim at achieving the most refined quality of the product.

Finally, the supervisor A should also define the systematically award system in proportion to increment in level and quality of production. This means that the rewarding mechanism will ensure that employees have consistent additional of awards proportional to the current output and master of the process. Consequently, this will develop the employees perception for the worthiness of the awards as illustrated by the valence element of the expectancy theory. This means that the salary level should be harmonized proportionately to the level and quality of output per head besides recognizing extra efforts. Lastly, this will develop the employees value for the rewards and, consequently, the achievement of the set organizational goals.

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