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The main objective of this paper is to consider the modern state of globalization phenomenon. The book Contemporary World Issues. Globalization: A Reference Handbook by J. Ervin and Z. A. Smith (2008) was used in order to provide historical background of globalization. The authors provide a clear and easy definition of the concept of globalization, which states that globalization performs the continuous process. By its means, regional societies, economies and cultures became integrated through the network of execution and communication. According to the authors, modern globalization involves such levels of societal life as economy, culture, business, politics, etc. In their book, R. Capello, U. Fratesi, and L. Resmini (2011) claim that the process of globalization has several advantages and disadvantages. Finally, it should be noted that globalization concerns each and every person and influences the life of everybody.
Key words: globalization, integration, communication, levels of societal life, economic globalization, advantages and disadvantages
Every day, the news, papers and people talk and report about globalization. Currently, the phenomenon of globalization has occupied almost all spheres of the human life. Globalization obliterates all time and spatial frames. However, globalization is characterized by its own meaning within every single sphere of life. Globalization concerns political, economic, business, cultural, and ecological levels of the modern society. However, similarly to many other phenomena occurring in the modern world, globalization has its advantages and disadvantages and is deeply relevant to every person.
Emergence of the term globalization is associated with the name of American sociologist R. Robertson who interpreted this concept in 1985. Globalization is a process of ever-increasing influence of various factors of the international value (for example, close economic and political relationships, or cultural and information exchange) on social reality in certain countries. The most powerful factor of globalization is economic factor manifested in the presence of transnational corporations operating in multiple countries and using the new historical conditions for their benefit. Globalization is an objective process which defines high-quality changes in the global space, increase of coherence and uniqueness of certain people or civilization as a whole (Ervin, & Smith, 2008).
The central idea of globalization is that many problems cannot be estimated and studied adequately at the level of the national state, i.e. at the level of certain country and its international relations with other countries. Instead, these problems should be formulated from the point of view of global processes. Some researchers even predict that global forces (multinational companies, other global economic establishments, global culture, or various globalizing ideologies) might become so strong that further existence of individual national states would be called into question (Ervin, & Smith, 2008).
Globalization involves a number of consequences. The main consequences are the global labor division, migration of people, capital and production, standardization of the legislation, economic processes, and merger of cultures of the different countries. Globalization also has a lot of positive sides. For example, it caused an increase of capital liquidity. Thus, investors from developed countries have an opportunity to invest in developing countries, which, in turn, does not only give benefit to investors, but also a serious impetus to the development of the Third World countries (Capello, Fratesi, & Resmini, 2011).
Moreover, globalization helps to increase the speed of information exchange. Thus, people around the world have an opportunity of instant exchange of information. First of all, it happens through the world mass media which gives the chance of fast response to the main events and problems and brings people closer. With the development of globalization, the decrease of the war probability began since the countries are too closely interrelated. Thus, any armed conflict becomes unprofitable. In addition, innovative tools for the simplification of business and entrepreneurship have become available. A wide accessibility of innovative tools provides the development of international trade and international companies (Capello et al., 2011).
However, the process of globalization has some disadvantages. Globalization is the cause of unemployment because the multinational companies always look for cheaper labor. Consequently, this forces them to transfer production to developing countries, such as China. In addition, the recent crisis has accurately showed that countries are closely connected with each other. Cooperation helps them to develop, but the problem of one big country automatically becomes the problem for the whole world. A huge problem for the developed countries is created by illegal immigrants from developing countries. Immigration is caused by globalization. Generally, it is extremely difficult for people to find work places and they impose a heavy burden on countries’ budgets (Capello et al., 2011). At first sight, globalization is the best medicine for all economic and social problems. However, some people suffer from it.
As for me, globalization, first of all, gives me a chance to be closer to my relatives and friends, which is very important in our huge country. For example, using the Internet, I can congratulate my friends on any holiday. We can ask each other for help or encourage each other in case of problems. On the other hand, since I started using the Internet, I began to communicate less with people face to face. I have forgotten how to greet guests. Moreover, before a computer appeared at my place, I could communicate with people much easier than now.
Secondly, globalization helps me to study. I think that I would have never had a better chance to get a decent education than during the globalization era. If I lived many years ago, I would have no opportunity to participate in the international educational programs and competitions, have practical trainings abroad using the Internet, ask my colleague from other country for help. All these things are so common nowadays that I cannot imagine my life without them.
Thirdly, globalization gives me freedom. Thus, I can independently choose everything, for instance, the place of residence, country to go for vacation, or products and items to buy. Globalization gives me a chance to develop in the desired direction. Using the experience of the world experts, I can become a professional in my business. Therefore, if I am good in my business, I will be able to work wherever I want. Thus, during the era of globalization, I can make a good career. Nevertheless, at the same time, globalization means a huge competition. Many people want to reach the same goals that I do. Consequently, even a good expert can hardly find a dream job.
Thus, it can be concluded that globalization is a difficult and many-sided process which demands attention and rigid control. Nowadays, there is a number of disadvantages of globalization, which are impossible or extremely difficult to fight. In this situation, it is necessary to concentrate attention on the positive effects and in every way try to lower the negative effects of globalization.