The variety of types and kinds of lessons offers great opportunities for its combination at the teacher’s work with students. The misunderstanding between Ms. Carpenter and her students needs to be solved with the use of right strategies and motivation. This work will offer different variants of increasing students understanding, on task behavior, rules and procedures that need to be implemented.
Strategies and solutions
Any activity proceeds more efficiently and gives better results, in case, a person has strong, vibrant, deep motives that cause the desire to be active, with full return of forces to overcome the inevitable difficulties, adverse conditions and other circumstances, consistently moving to the goal. Stimulation is closely related to the motivation. To stimulate means to impel, give impulse to the thoughts, feelings and actions. In order to reinforce and enhance the impact on the individual student of various factors, Ms. Carpenter should apply different stimulation strategies, among which the most common are the competition, cognitive game, promotion, punishment and others.
1. A competition in the pedagogical process is built by a teacher, with the use of the undoubted social and psychological fact that children, adolescents and youth have the highest degree characteristic of the desire for a healthy rivalry, priority, superiority, self-affirmation. Involving students in the struggle to achieve the best results in their studies, work and social activity raise the level of advanced lagging, stimulates creativity, initiative, innovation, responsibility and teamwork.
At present, competition on specific indicators of student achievement is not carried out and should not be performed. However, it would be wrong to completely eliminate the competition of the most important areas of life and activity of schoolchildren. The best schools’ experience shows that the use of competition in academic work is possible and brings obvious benefits, if it is carried out for the conscientious attitude to learning.
Competition can be collective and individual, designed for long life and episodic. In the process of organizing and conducting, Ms. Carpenter must ensure that the traditional principles are followed: transparency, specific indicators, comparability of results, possibility of a practical use of the best practices.
An experience of the success situations is especially needed to students, who face particular difficulties in learning. In this case, Ms. Carpenter should chose such tasks, which students in this category could cope without much difficulty, and only then move on to more challenging exercises. In the experience of leading teachers, there is used a so-called dual task, where the first task is preparing a student to carry out other, more complex. Reliable way of creating successful situations is a differentiated approach to the definition of the content and nature of the assistance to students in its implementation. In this case, naturally there must be a verbal encouragement, reassurance of a student, which gives him confidence, striving to meet teacher’s evaluation. There is a great importance in creating success situations, which is caused by total moral and psychological atmosphere of performing various tasks, as it largely removes the feeling of insecurity, fear to launch external complex tasks.
Ms. Carpenter can use educational games and educational discussions. Educational games are adjacent to success experience situations, as also aimed at creating game situations, which cause vivid emotional experience.
2. Promotion is a way of expressing a positive assessment of social behavior and activity of individual student or team, which Ms. Carpenter can use in her class. Its enabling role is in the fact that it contains a public recognition of the way of action, which was elected and held an apprentice in life. Experiencing a sense of satisfaction, the student is experiencing an upswing of vivacity and energy, self-confidence and moving forward.
An encouragement is specially needed to the timid and non-confident students. However, it will be better if it is a collective promotion. Ms. Carpenter should take care not to create “incensed”-students and “deprived”-students at public attention. The strength of the educational influence of promotion depends on whether it is objective and finds support in public opinion group.
3. Punishment is the impact on the individual student, which condemns actions and behavior contrary to the norms of social behavior, and forcing students to adhere strictly to them. Punishment corrects the behavior of the student, makes it clear where and in what he was wrong, a feeling of dissatisfaction, discomfort, shame. This condition creates a student’s need to change their behavior. Howver, punishment in any case should not cause the student suffering - neither physical, nor moral.
The methods of punishment are comments of Ms. Carpenter, an offer to stand at the desk, the call for suggestions on the pedagogical council, reprimand in the school order, transferring to a parallel class or to another school. There also can be used this form of punishment as a change of attitude to the student of teacher or class collective.
Skillful use of punishment requires Ms. Carpenter pedagogical tact and specific skills. Any punishment must be accompanied by an analysis of the causes and conditions that gave rise to one or the other offense. In cases, when a student has violated the rules of conduct recklessly, by chance, Ms. Carpenter can restrict a simple conversation or reproach. Punishment brings success when it is consistent with public opinion group. Application of censure and punishment in any form in order to stimulate and motivate the teaching is no exception and can only be justified in exceptional circumstances.
A purpose is a pre-programmed result, which needs to be achieved by Ms. Carpenter and students at the end of the lesson.
Ms. Carpenter task is to provide students with a sense of purpose, cause them to have a personal interest related to its achievement. When students are not aware of the purpose of their work in the classroom, the process of their teachings and guidance of the teacher becomes a formality, students follow instructions of Ms. Carpenter, because it is “somehow need.” Without understanding the concept of Ms. Carpenter’s tasks, they can not fully express activity, independence, while working on them.
The task of Ms. Carpenter and students is to formulate educational purpose of the lesson for students to show them what they need to learn in the lesson, what knowledge and skills should be mastered. Teaching and educational aspects determine, which increments in knowledge are assumed. There can be:
- The creation of new knowledge; assimilation of new knowledge (to learn, then, to understand, to remember, to apply);
- Ensuring assimilation (deepening, widening) the most essential elements of knowledge, definitions, rules, formulas, formulations, theories and evidence;
- Formation of general studying skills: planning training activities, work with the textbook (use the table of contents to find the desired text in the textbook, split it into semantic parts, independently study new material), work with tables, reference books, independently verify the correctness of the exercises, learning material;
- Development of skills (accurate, correctly carried out actions that have been brought into force repetitive automatism);
- Formation of abilities (a combination of knowledge and skills that ensure successful implementation of the activity);
- Controlling the degree of assimilation of knowledge and skills.
Learning strategies are a set of techniques and approaches that reflect the shape of the interaction of students and Ms. Carpenter in the learning process.
In the modern sense of learning, the learning process is seen as a process of interaction between Ms. Carpenter and students (lesson) to familiarizing students to specific knowledge, skills, abilities and values. From the earliest days of training until today, there are developed, established widely used three forms of interaction of teachers and students. The learning methods can be subdivided into three generic groups:
- Passive strategies;
- Active strategies;
- Interactive strategies.
Each of them has its own characteristics.
Passive strategy is a form of interaction between students and Ms. Carpenter, wherein Ms. Carpenter is the main protagonist and control the course of the lesson, and the students play the role of passive listeners, subordinate directives of Ms. Carpenter.
Communication of Ms. Carpenter with students in the classroom is done through passive surveys, independent, examinations, tests, etc. Lecture is the most common form of passive lesson.
Active strategy is a form of interaction between students and Ms. Carpenter, whereby Ms. Carpenter and students interact with each other during the lesson, and students are not passive listeners, but active participants in the lesson. If passive lesson main actor and manager of the lesson was Ms. Carpenter, here Ms. Carpenter and students are on an equal footing. If the passive method involves authoritarian style of interaction, the more active involve democratic style.
Interactive strategy means communication in conversation, dialogue with anyone. In other words, unlike active strategies focused on interactive greater interaction with not only the students of Ms. Carpenter, but also with each other and the dominance of activity of students in the learning process. Ms. Carpenter’s place in interactive lessons is reduced to the direction of activity of students to achieve the objectives of the lesson. An important difference between interactive exercises and activities from normal that their students are performing not only and not so much already secured the material studied as a new study. There is a need to clearly understand what exactly is going to develop, discard the old delusion “I teach - so already developing.” It must be remembered that the development takes place only in the course of their own activities of a student.
The use of unusual shapes lesson will build a new training session of Ms. Carpenter. It does not replace the classical lessons, and complement, will make a recovery, diversity, increase the interest, therefore, contribute to the improvement of the educational process and increase students understanding. As the lesson, the main form of training, one should not underestimate its potential in the development of cognitive interest of students. Fun is a necessary to initiate and sustain attention and interest in the subject.
There is an effort needed to make learning more interesting, teachers are increasingly moving away from traditional lessons of increasing their diversity (quiz, role play, discussions, competitions, etc.).
Therefore, there are still relevant strategies based on the use of gaming technology in teaching. The main objective of the games is to improve education by increasing students' interest in the lesson and give him the emotional coloring. Depending on the objectives of educational games are appropriate in explaining the new theme, and while fixing, repetition, generalization, monitoring students’ knowledge Ms. Carpenter, as well as in extracurricular activities. Certainly, Ms. Carpenter has the right to make their own changes to the game, take into account that the student in modern educational process acts as the subject of self-development and a variety of activities.
Finally, for the realization of personality -oriented approach to training and educating students, Ms. Carpenter must learn on how to stimulate the activity of the students, to inspire them to not only understand what they were wanted, but take the position of Ms. Carpenter, agree with her, nominate their own ideas, defend their opinions and act as full partners in communication.