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Each person comes into an organization with a set of personal values. They develop in the early years under the influence of parents, teachers, friends, and other people who are surrounding him. Values are the basic concepts of what is right and what is wrong. Thus, the managers of the same organizations often have very different individual values and, as a result, the organizational political behavior is different.
The concept of moral values and the stage of growth may seem almost identical at first glance, but there is a difference between them. The first time, a wide range of moral and ethical issues is being marked by the organizational politic behavior, and the second is much more specific and determines the degree of independence of the moral principles of the individual from outside influence (Jones 2010).
Studies have found two main indicators of individual variables that influence the behavior of individuals in accordance with their personal vision of the right or wrong behavior, which are ones strength and the degree of self-control (Furnham 2013).
The strength of the individual characteristics of the person shows the extent of the ones conviction in the fact that he/she was right. People who have a greater effect on the performance of others will be self-sufficient or less susceptible to external influences (Coldwell, et al, 2008). It should be noted that a high degree of confidence is expected from today's managers as this quality is necessary in order to ensure maximum consistency between the moral and ethical principles of ones actions.
In the organizational political behavior, the degree of self-control relates to the individual characteristic, which is measured by the degree of conviction of a man that he is the master of his own destiny. People with high self-control, think they are in control of their own destiny; people with low self-control, believe that everything that happens to them in life is dependent on luck or chance. From the point of view of business ethics, people who belong to the second of these categories are less likely to take personal responsibility for the consequences of their actions and are more dependent on other people's opinions or some external factors. But people with elevated level of self-control take responsibility for their actions and behave in accordance with their own internal standards. For managers, this is a characteristic of a high degree of consistency between their moral principles and ethics of their actions.
To some extent, the level of managers ethical behavior depends on the block diagram of the organization in which they work. The organizational political behavior is defined by the recommendations for the conduct of these or other situations. Other organizational structures create ambiguous situations for the management staff. Structural schemes reduce ambiguity and constantly remind managers which actions are considered ethical, and which are not; therefore, contribute to the moral and ethical actions.
The company has a clear set of formal rules and regulations which reduce the degree of ambiguity. On the basis of job descriptions and ethical codes of behavior, the organizational political behavior is formed by successive members of the organization (Pastoriza, Arino, & Ricart 2008). At the level of ethical behavior of individual, employees are being affected by the principles on which establish their actions and decisions of their supervisors. People always pay attention to what and how leaders perform, and use it as a guide for their own actions. Some system performance assessments are focused solely on the results, while others are already evaluated. If the activities of managers are evaluated only by the results, the tendency to work on the principle of "the end justifies the means" increases in their environment (Den Hartog & De Hoogh 2009).
Organizational political behavior together with the performance evaluation system is closely related to methods of distribution fees. The larger the reward or punishment depends on the results achieved by the manager, the greater the impact is on them. In this case, the managers are put in a situation where the intended target should be reached by any means, even in violation of their own moral and ethical principles (Champoux, 2010).
Organizational structures have different levels of competition, time, cost, and other factors that affect the management of employees. At the same time, the higher the degree of the pressure in the organization, the more likely is the decline of ethical standards of managers working in it.
The level of ethical behavior management personnel, as a part of the organizational political behavior, also depends on the organizational culture. The formation of high ethical standards promotes the formation of such type of culture, which is characterized by tolerance to risk, a high level of control, and tolerance to conflict. Managers who work in such an environment are encouraged to active and creative activities. They understand that any unethical business practices will certainly be uncovered and convicted.
A strong culture highly influences the organization of the management staff. If the culture of the organization is strong and, at the same time, maintains high ethical standards, it is capable enough to significantly improve managers moral and ethical levels (Ofori 2009). In organizations with a weak ethical culture, all levels of organization are being affected by the working groups and different in-house standards and norms and the depth of the moral and ethical issues. The complexity of the problem is determined by the following characteristics of gears.
Therefore, the more unethical is the environment in which the company performs, the higher is resistance of employees. This highly affects the effectiveness and efficiency of the companys performance, thus, the problem of unethical behavior is so important issue in the organizational politics.